The Ancient Greek Alphabet
Ancient Greek letters and their Roman equivalents

῾ = h as in "history"


α (Α) = a as in "ashore" or as in "father"   [αλφα / alpha]

β (Β) = b as in "bite"                                        [βητα / beta]

γ (Γ) = g as in "get"                                         [γαμμα / gamma]
         = ng
as in "anchor" before γ, κ, χ, ξ

δ (Δ) = d as in "deal"                                      [δελτα / delta]

ε (Ε) = e as in "red"                                         [ε ψῑλόν / epsilon]

Ϝ (F) = w as in "swan"                                    [διγαμμα / digamma]
         = hw
as in "where" at the beginning of a word

ζ (Ζ) = zd as in "Mazda"                                [ζητα / zeta]

η (Η) = é as in "fiancé"                                   [ητα / eta]

θ (Θ) = th as in "hothouse"                            [θητα / theta]

ι (Ι) = i as in "hit" oras in "machine"           [ιωτα / iota]

κ (Κ) = k as in "kill"                                          [καππα / kappa]

λ (Λ) = l as in "flit"                                           [λαμβδα / lambda]

μ (Μ) = m as in "muse"                                   [μῡ / mu]

ν (Ν) = n as in "net"                                        [νῡ / nu]

ξ (Ξ) = x as in "wax"                                        [ξει or ξῑ / xi]

ο (Ο) = o as in "domain"                                 [ο μῑκρόν / omicron]

π (Π) = p as in "pie"                                        [πει or πῑ / pi]

ρ (Ρ) = r as in "Rodrigo"                                  [ῥω / rho]

σ, ς (Σ) = s as in "sit"                                       [σιγμα / sigma]
              = z
as in "wisdom" before γ, β, δ, λ, μ, ν, ρ

τ (Τ) = t as in "tie"                                            [ταυ / tau]

υ (Υ) = u as in "dune" or ū as in "ruse"         [υ ψῑλόν / upsilon]

φ (Φ) = ph as in "upholstery"                         [φει or φῑ / phi]

χ (Χ) = ch as in "Achilles"                               [χει or χῑ / chi]

ψ (Ψ) = ps as in "lapsarian"                                   [ψει or ψῑ / psi]

ω (Ω) = ō as in "wrote"                                   [ω μεγα / omega]



αι as in "aisle"

αυ as in "Faust"

ει as in "freight"

ου as in "crouton"



The iota subscript (ᾳ ῃ ῳ) is used only with long vowels and occurs primarily in dative singular endings. The iota is written beneath the long vowel to indicate that in Hellenistic times the sound of the iota in long diphthongs began to disappear. In these online texts, only John's Gospel is written with the iota subscript. The iota adscript (ι ηι ωι) is used for the classical and archaic texts.

ᾳ = ᾱι

ῃ = ηι

ῳ = ωι